Friday, 22 April 2016

Digital distribution and film making

Why does Steve McQueen think digital is replacing film?
 “All this technology, it’s changing every five minutes,” he says, “because someone’s making some money out of it.”

Which studio was first to announce that it would no longer make films using 'film'?
Paramount Pictures became the first big studio to announce that it would no longer release 35mm prints of movies in the US.

What was the last 'film' to be shipped on 'film'?
Anchorman 2: the Legend Continues was, in effect, the final Paramount film to be shipped to cinemas on, well, film.

What proportion of US cinemas have made the switch from 35mm to digital?
 But nine out of ten US movie screens have now made the switch from 35mm film to digital. 

What was the first 'major' film to be distributed in digital format only?
The Wolf of Wall Street became the first major movie to be delivered to theatres in digital formats only.

What is the average cost of a digital projector?
Digital projectors typically cost between $60,000 and $150,000 each.

Why has the switch to digital meant that small independent cinemas have struggled?

Which major Hollywood director has attempted to make a stand for digital film?
Tarantino once said that the day the New Beverly betrayed 35mm film, he would burn the place down.

How much did the US box office make in 2014
Tinseltown put in a solid turn at the US box office, taking a record $11bn.

How much did the home entertainment market (DVD, BluRay, Download etc) in 2014?
The home entertainment market brought in revenues of $18bn

What was the increase in home entertainment revenue due to?
A 50 per cent surge in downloads of digital HD formats, which surpassed $1bn for the first time.

What was the first film to be shot entirely on digital?
n 2002, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones became the first major movie to be shot entirely on digital video.

What would have been the cost of shooting that film on digital?
The producers of Attack of the Clones estimate that they spent $16,000 on 220 hours of digital tape.

How much does it cost to produce and ship a film to a US cinema?
To produce and ship a 35mm print to an American cinema costs about $1,500.

What is the distribution benefit of digital?
Digital formats can do the same job as film for 90 per cent less of the price.

What happened to 'film' prints of Titanic?
Titanic reportedly played for so long in theatres that some prints fell apart in the projectors. 

What has happened to the number of films made by Hollywood between 2006-2013?
The number of films made by Hollywood has fallen considerably – by 40 per cent between 2006 and 2013.

Why, according to Jan-Christoph Horak, is digital NOT immortal?
“The problem, in a nutshell, is that there is no such thing as a digital preservation medium,” he explains. “There is no physical carrier on which you can put digital information that will last anywhere near as long as the analogue alternative.”

Why is advancing technology also a problem for digital storage?
The first is the perishability of the physical equipment. The second is that every 18 months or so, a new file format comes along to displace its predecessors and, as a result of this constant upgrade cycle, archivists face a kind of Sisyphean dilemma.

How much, according to Jan-Christoph Horak, could transfering one form of digital to another cost the film industry?
Each leap in format costs between $10,000 and $20,000 per film.

How much did the camera used on The Avengers cost?
Marvel’s The Avengers (2012), which cost an estimated $220m to make.

Apart from cost, what other benefits does digital offer to film makers?
It allows the capture of “powerfully immersive and kaleidoscopic views of action scenes”.

How much has technicolour invested in digital post production?
The company has invested more than $200m.

What is a DCP?
DCP, or Digital Cinema Package.

What is the Electric Dusk drive-in?
The Electric Dusk drive-in in downtown Los Angeles has hit upon a solution of sorts: it shows films on DVD. It’s a kind of guerrilla operation – a pop-up drive-in in an abandoned marketplace, flanked by scenes of urban decay and boasting a giant inflatable screen.


1. Sumarise the answers above into a 50 word explanation of the positive impact of digital distribution.
 A positive impact of digital distribution is it frees up a proportion of a films budget. This is due to the low hardware and software costs, not needing any format switches or any other unneeded costs. Allowing the production company to spend more on other areas of the film resulting in a better audience experience. (55)

2. Sumarise the answers above into a 50 word explanation of the negative impact of digital distribution

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